Nested List Weight Sum Stack
Another apporach is to use map(). If your application is in a runnable state (even a beta one), Stack Apps is also the place to list it. Interview question for Tools Developer in Sunnyvale, CA. Given an array of positive integers A (or the equivalent in your language), replace each entry Ai with the sum of the next Ai elements of A, cycling bac Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their. 0 repository of evgen. * There are a lot of top-level menu items that are rarely if ever used, contributing to cognitive weight by still being permanently visible. * This implementation uses a singly-linked list with a nested class. String contains only digits and "[],". MIME-Version: 1. Nested List Weight Sum. 2012-08-21 18:22 pramsey * /trunk/liblwgeom/cunit/cu_tree. The list methods make it very easy to use a list as a stack, where the last element added is the first element retrieved ("last-in, first-out"). However, often numpy will use a numerically better approach (partial pairwise summation) leading to improved precision in many use-cases. I propose bumping the body font up to 16px, and other small font sizes up around 2px higher than they currently are, keeping the existing size hierarchy, just more sizier :)" davidjlaietta 3773 Request from Marketing Team to Implement Navigation Change at make. Leetcode's nested list weight sum-2. Have another way to solve this solution? Contribute your code (and comments) through Disqus. Nested List Weight Sum II - 30 min Java Coding Challenge (Failed) Yusen Zhang. If the nested integer is a list, we calculate the sum of this list recursively using the same process but with depth d + 1. However, we should avoid writing very long list comprehensions in one line to ensure that code is user-friendly. Posted in Medium Tagged #recursive, nestedlist Leave a Comment on Leetcode: Nested List Weight Sum II Leetcode: Nested List Weight Sum Posted on February 11, 2018 September 23, 2019 by braindenny. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. As of version 0. txt * // ***** define('mPDF_VERSION','6. (four 1's at depth 2, one 2 at depth 1) Example 2: Given the list [1,[4,[6]]], return 27. We apply the sum function to each element in a column and find sum of each column accordingly. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Use a SUM+IF statement to count the number of cells in a range that pass a given test or to sum those values in a range for which corresponding values in another (or the same) range meet the specified criteria. At any point, an RPL stack may contain an arbitrary number of arbitrary objects. Then we need return this value for each (a, b) (which can be multiple). [LeetCode] Nested List Weight Sum II Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. One of the primary reasons to study the order of growth of a program is to help design a faster algorithm to solve the same problem. We go through the list of nested integers one by one, keeping track of the current depth d. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. For example:. A question before this is the Nested List Weight Sum, and it requires recursion to solve. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. Next, we used For Loop to add numbers to the list. The IF function is a built-in function in Excel that is categorized as a Logical Function. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. In many cases, there's a much faster and less wasteful way to accomplish the goal you're trying to achieve. (four 1's at depth 2, one 2 at depth 1) Example 2: Given the list [1,[4,[6]]], return 27. Python Program to Sort List in Ascending Order. Your equation is equivalent to 1+1 x=∑(i,j,k)∈A1=|A|. The above algorithm to compute the nested weight checklist sum runs at O(N) time the place N is the variety of integers within the checklist together with the sub-list as every integer is visited precisely as soon as. It can be used as a worksheet function (WS) in Excel. Caution: For performance, nested lists are not. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. implements a stack where elements 'float' on-top of the stack according to a weight value. c, /trunk/liblwgeom/lwgeodetic_tree. List comprehension consists of an expression followed by for statement inside square brackets. org Make (Get Involved) / P2 high enhancement new 2018-08-21T20:15:56Z 2019. 问题来自 leetcode 339. To calculate the SUM(d) for a given (a, b) we can calculate the partial sums for (a, b, c) and add them together. This array index represents the depth of nested list. Return a reshaped DataFrame or Series having a multi-level index with one or more new inner-most levels compared to the current DataFrame. 2012-08-21 18:22 pramsey * /trunk/liblwgeom/cunit/cu_tree. It then processes each directory path in the stack, adding all the files each time. Next, we used For Loop to add numbers to the list. MIME-Version: 1. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. I am trying to figure out how to get the showon tag to work with nested fields. At any point, an RPL stack may contain an arbitrary number of arbitrary objects. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. Similar to Nested List Weight Sum, we can use recursion to solve it. List comprehension is generally more compact and faster than normal functions and loops for creating list. The problem I'm having is that the second nested subquery (the one in the left join) is unable to find the column elements. I looked at the documentation using a workflow to do this, however a line may be deleted and then how do you reconfigure the totals in a new list, and do this in live time. stack (self, level=-1, dropna=True) [source] ¶ Stack the prescribed level(s) from columns to index. Contribute to PuChen0211/Pu211_LC development by creating an account on GitHub. From what I've found searching around SQL only passes values one level deep, and I've been unable to find a suitable work-around. Nested List Weight Sum. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Tools One of the most exciting possibilities of XML-RPC is that writing and illustration tools can seamlessly connect to servers, turning the Web into a fantastic, easy, creative environment, open to all. Below is the syntax javac Stack. Similar to Nested List Weight Sum, we can use recursion to solve it. Since Excel 2007, the number of levels of functions that can be nested inside each other is 64. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. The algorithm takes O(N)O(N) time, where NN is the total number of nested elements in the input list. AndroidBaby安卓大宝贝 64 views. pc/debian_paths/nifti_img_view. LeetCode – Nested List Weight Sum II (Java) Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. 4)); // Specify which font. The problem I'm having is that the second nested subquery (the one in the left join) is unable to find the column elements. Within the worst case for inputs like [1, [1, [1, [1,. Nested List Weight Sum II - 30 min Java Coding Challenge (Failed) Yusen Zhang. However, this is what it does when I download as an MS Word file. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. Python implementation. This weight quantifies the importance of the index term for describing the document semantic contents. The INDIRECT function nested inside of the SUM function makes it easy to change the start and end of the range totaled by the SUM function, without having to edit the function itself. The problem I'm having is that the second nested subquery (the one in the left join) is unable to find the column elements. 0025) per kilometer (distance) if over 1,000km per. Notice how it's resetting the counter for every nested list, and it's missing the "1. 0 repository of evgen. It can be used as a worksheet function (WS) in Excel. We designate the nested class as private because clients do not need to know any of the details of the linked lists. Q&A for pro webmasters. txt * // ***** define('mPDF_VERSION','4. If you have additional questions, or believe you have encountered a bug, don't hesitate to post a question on Stack Apps. In the constructor, we push all the nestedList into the stack from back to front, so when we pop the stack, it returns the very first element. Nested List Weight Sum. Otherwise, it returns 0. But since we need to access each NestedInteger at a time, we will use a stack to help. Notice that the StackLayouts are nested, because in some cases nesting layouts can be easier than presenting all elements within the same layout. We go through the list of nested integers one by one, keeping track of the current depth d. then you won't need a list inside the class or the nested. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A How to sum values for any x,y coordinate as key in a dictionary by PyQGIS? (Sum of values across all nested. Here is the question: (it's a long one sorry!) If the freight type is Victor Von Doom Freight then the freight cost is calculated at $4. For example:. Example 1: Given the list [[1,1],2,[1,1]], return 10. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. As it carries to this problem that we will need recursion to solve it. Contribute to PuChen0211/Pu211_LC development by creating an account on GitHub. This question can be solved in a different way. The first method is an all-purpose "Add"-type method which will either add it or update it depending on whether or not it exists. Figure 11: List with three nested, each nested list has three nested lists. From java doc: An iterator for lists that allows the programmer to traverse the list in either direction, modify the list during iteration, and obtain the iterator's current position in the list. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. Nested List Weight Sum. Also notice that, because StackLayout doesn't support overlapping items, the page doesn't have some of the layout niceties found in the pages for the other layouts. The implementation is based on a nested class Node like the one we have been using. Here's an example of the input file:. For example, by nesting the AVERAGE and SUM function in the arguments of the IF function, the following formula sums a set of numbers (G2:G5) only if the average of another set of numbers (F2:F5) is greater than 50. pc/debian_paths/nifti_img_view. se> > X-Authentication-Warning: enfield. So average is 46 / 8 = 35. Whether you're building highly interactive web applications or you just need to add a date picker to a form control, jQuery UI is the perfect choice. For example, by nesting the AVERAGE and SUM function in the arguments of the IF function, the following formula sums a set of numbers (G2:G5) only if the average of another set of numbers (F2:F5) is greater than 50. reduce) is in general limited by directly adding each number individually to the result causing rounding errors in every step. For example:. The algorithm takes O(N)O(N) time, where NN is the total number of nested elements in the input list. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. 2012-08-21 18:22 pramsey * /trunk/liblwgeom/cunit/cu_tree. It'll let you add an element to the List<>, creating the key if neccesary. Figure 12 shows an example to access elements at index A[0][2][1] which contains a value of 132. Zeros are added to the sum for that part of each file that is not in the time window. Where weight is increasing from root to leaf, now the weight is defined from bottom up. It can be used as a worksheet function (WS) in Excel. It then processes each directory path in the stack, adding all the files each time. c, regress/tickets. Given the list [[1,1],2,[1,1]], By calling next repeatedly until hasNext returns false, the order of elements returned by. You will find them in virtually every nontrivial Python program. In both the recursive and the loop variant we sum the same numbers. Then we throw the list of workers that match the filter. Otherwise, it returns 0. Nested List Weight Sum. In the worst case for inputs like [1, [1, [1, [1,. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. Specifically, the set of values is a collection of objects, and the operations revolve around adding, removing, or examining objects in the collection. Nested List Weight Sum. AndroidBaby安卓大宝贝 64 views. Figure 11: List with three nested, each nested list has three nested lists. 题目: Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. pas 2013-09-21 09:36:20 +0000. Testing more than one condition If you need to test for more than one condition, then take one of several actions, depending on the result of the tests, you can nest multiple IF statements together in one formula. The first index A[0] contains a list that contains three lists, which can be represented as a rectangular table. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. Have another way to solve this solution? Contribute your code (and comments) through Disqus. A stack's primary operations are load/push and store/pop. Otherwise, it returns 0. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Nested List Weight Sum. • Calculate the sum of the array • Display the sum Description: Write a program that prompts the user for multiple 32-bit integers, stores them in an array, calculates the sum of the array, and displays the sum on the screen. only those results that list at the top of the heap are most likely to attract you. Caution: For performance, nested lists are not. Flatten Nested List Iterator Given a nested list of integers, implement an iterator to flatten it. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. java code: /** * // This is the interface that allows for creating nested lists. * This implementation uses a singly-linked list with a nested class. As it carries to this problem that we will need recursion to solve it. 4)); // Specify which font. Each element is either an integer, or a list - whose elements may also be integers or other lists. This declaration creates a new type (product), which is then used to declare three objects (variables) of this type: apple, banana, and melon. Flattern Nested List Iterator Description: Given a nested list of integers, implement an iterator to flatten it. Within the worst case for inputs like [1, [1, [1, [1,. This declaration creates a new type (product), which is then used to declare three objects (variables) of this type: apple, banana, and melon. Excel Formula Training. Main: The Main sub here shows how to call FileHelper. 0_01/jre\ gtint :tL;tH=f %Jn! [email protected]@ Wrote%dof%d if($compAFM){ -ktkeyboardtype =zL" filesystem-list \renewcommand{\theequation}{\#} L;==_1 =JU* L9cHf lp. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. Return the sum once you hit the number. It'll let you add an element to the List<>, creating the key if neccesary. */ public interface NestedInteger {/** * @return true if this NestedInteger holds a single integer, rather than a nested list */ boolean isInteger (); /** * @return the single integer that this NestedInteger holds, if it holds a single integer * Return null if this. Q&A for professionals and students of engineering. LeetCode Nested List Weight Sum的更多相关文章 [LeetCode] Nested List Weight Sum II 嵌套链表权重和之二. Let's take some code to print the tables of numbers 7 and 8. The problem I'm having is that the second nested subquery (the one in the left join) is unable to find the column elements. * // License: GPL * // * // Changes: See changelog. Given a nested list of integers, returns the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth For example, Given the list {{ 1 , 1 }, 2 ,{ 1 , 1 }} the function should return 10 ( four 1 ' s at depth 2 , one 2 at depth 1 ) Given the list { 1 ,{ 4 ,{ 6 }}} the function should return 27 ( one 1 at depth 1 , one 4 at depth 2 , and one 6 at. 4, different kinds of sequence have different types. – cas 8 hours ago. pas' (properties changed: +x to -x) --- debian/. The first index A[0] contains a list that contains three lists, which can be represented as a rectangular table. Nested List Comprehension Python Finally, in this tutorial, we will end by discussing how to use a Python list comprehension for a nested for-loop. A question before this is the Nested List Weight Sum, and it requires recursion to solve. As it carries to this problem that we will need recursion to solve it. Yusen Zhang 531 views. The list methods make it very easy to use a list as a stack, where the last element added is the first element retrieved (“last-in, first-out”). Nested List Weight Sum. class GroupInspector (object): """A class for returning data about a scaling group. Have another way to solve this solution? Contribute your code (and comments) through Disqus. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. It is much easier in perl - handling multidimensional arrays and nested data structures is one of the points where I give up on awk and switch to perl, it's just not worth the effort of writing 5 or more times as much code to crappily emulate something that is trivially easy in perl. Leetcode's nested list weight sum-2. The above algorithm to compute the nested weight checklist sum runs at O(N) time the place N is the variety of integers within the checklist together with the sub-list as every integer is visited precisely as soon as. The Pixel 4 has at least five major new hardware-based features: face unlock, Motion Sense, the new Google Assistant, the new 90Hz display, and a second telephoto camera lens. As it carries to this problem that we will need recursion to solve it. Besides adding all elements into the stack, we can also add ListIterator of the list into the stack. However, the SUM is associative, that is sum of groupwise sums is the same as the sum of separate values. But starting the inner sum with 250 or more summands implies a compilation. * // License: GPL * // * // Changes: See changelog. – cas 8 hours ago. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. Sum of Nested Integers Given a nested list of integers, returns the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth * For example, given the list {{1,1},2,{1,1}} the function should return 10 (four 1's at depth 2, one 2 at depth 1) * Given the list {1,{4,{6}}} the function should return 27 (one 1 at depth 1, one 4 at depth 2, and one 6. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A Append count of unique values to dictionary keys and then sum the occurrences I then need to sum all the value. If the nested integer is a list, we calculate the sum of this list recursively using the same process but with depth d + 1. The second is specifically for dictionaries where the value is a List<>. However, we should avoid writing very long list comprehensions in one line to ensure that code is user-friendly. This lets the stack view arbitrarily resize the image view without distorting the image. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. If you have additional questions, or believe you have encountered a bug, don't hesitate to post a question on Stack Apps. id from the initial select. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. I have a list of units (as in entities in a game): workers = [engineer1, engineer2, scientist1, scientist2] These workers have a couple of properties I want to group them by: city and specialization. Subarray Sum II Intersection of Two Arrays Shuffle an Array Summary Ranges Rotate Function Find All Duplicates in an Array. Several fundamental data types involve collections of objects. 12 Python Tutorial Nested lists and IF ELSE - Duration: 5:23. Definition Let t be the number of index terms in the system and k; be a generic index term. LeetCode Nested List Weight Sum II: CPP Solution. Figure 12 shows an example to access elements at index A[0][2][1] which contains a value of 132. Nested List Weight Sum. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Python implementation. Linked-list implementation of a generic stack. Return a reshaped DataFrame or Series having a multi-level index with one or more new inner-most levels compared to the current DataFrame. Note: You may assume that the string is well-formed: String is non-empty. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. The first method is an all-purpose "Add"-type method which will either add it or update it depending on whether or not it exists. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. Each element is either an integer, or a list – whose elements may also be integers or oth Example 2: Given the list [1,[4,[6]]] ,. Example 1: Given the list [[1,1],2,[1,1]], return 10. Glenn Hunt ghunt at hds. You will find them in virtually every nontrivial Python program. Contribute to PuChen0211/Pu211_LC development by creating an account on GitHub. List comprehension is an elegant and concise way to create new list from an existing list in Python. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. stack (self, level=-1, dropna=True) [source] ¶ Stack the prescribed level(s) from columns to index. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. But since we need to access each NestedInteger at a time, we will use a stack to help. The IF function is a built-in function in Excel that is categorized as a Logical Function. LeetCode Nested List Weight Sum II: CPP Solution. * Example 1: * Given the list [[1,1],2,[1,1]], return 10. And, the depth of child nested list is the depth of parent nested list plus 1. To retrieve an item from the top of the stack, use pop() without an explicit index. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. Nested loops are frequently (but not always) bad practice, because they're frequently (but not always) overkill for what you're trying to do. This is possible in awk but is a PITA to do. 75 Input : [15, 9, 55, 41, 35, 20, 62, 49] Output : Average of the list = 35. * // @return true if this NestedInteger holds a single integer, rather than a nested list. As of version 0. Besides adding all elements into the stack, we can also add ListIterator of the list into the stack. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. 0025) per kilometer (distance) if over 1,000km per. 551 Nested List Wight Sum Nested List Weight Sum II【Queue】中文 - Duration: 7:42. or / sum types: > In computer science, a tagged union, also called a variant, variant record, choice type, discriminated union, disjoint union, or sum type, can take on several different, but fixed types. List comprehension is generally more compact and faster than normal functions and loops for creating list. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. In both the recursive and the loop variant we sum the same numbers. 问题来自 leetcode 339. reduce) is in general limited by directly adding each number individually to the result causing rounding errors in every step. Posted in Medium Tagged #recursive, nestedlist Leave a Comment on Leetcode: Nested List Weight Sum II Leetcode: Nested List Weight Sum Posted on February 11, 2018 September 23, 2019 by braindenny. Using the concatenation technique in step 3, use the numbers stored in cells E1 and E2 in the spreadsheet to change the range of cells for the SUM function. Each element is either an integer, or Stack Overflow. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 How to use nested repeat function in visualforce page. * // @return true if this NestedInteger holds a single integer, rather than a nested list. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. The problem I'm having is that the second nested subquery (the one in the left join) is unable to find the column elements. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. implements a stack where elements 'float' on-top of the stack according to a weight value. I am trying to figure out how to get the showon tag to work with nested fields. Leetcode's nested list weight sum-2. 3 Bags, Queues, and Stacks. Below is the syntax javac Stack. * // You should not implement it, or speculate about its implementation * public interface NestedInteger { * * // @return true if this NestedInteger holds a single integer, rather than a nested list. Each element is either an integer, or a list - whose elements may also be integers or other lists. You will find them in virtually every nontrivial Python program. jQuery UI is a curated set of user interface interactions, effects, widgets, and themes built on top of the jQuery JavaScript Library. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. 2012-03-19 20:40 Paul Ramsey * [r9517] README. ca > -----Original Message----- > From: thelist-admin at lists. Below is the syntax javac Stack. Each element is either an integer, or a list — whose elements may also be integers or other lists. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. So average is 46 / 8 = 35. Support for quality data, reading and writing Fasta formatted files, reading TwoBit and phd formats, and Roche\/454 SFF files. Besides adding all elements into the stack, we can also add ListIterator of the list into the stack. Oct 21, 2016 · 3 min read. In many cases, there's a much faster and less wasteful way to accomplish the goal you're trying to achieve. Figure 12 shows an example to access elements at index A[0][2][1] which contains a value of 132. If your application is in a runnable state (even a beta one), Stack Apps is also the place to list it. From java doc: An iterator for lists that allows the programmer to traverse the list in either direction, modify the list during iteration, and obtain the iterator's current position in the list. Given the list [[1,1],2,[1,1]], return 10. Flatten Nested List Iterator Given a nested list of integers, implement an iterator to flatten it. Leetcode 341. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Philosophy Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for those interested in the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence. Specifically, the set of values is a collection of objects, and the operations revolve around adding, removing, or examining objects in the collection. LeetCode - Nested List Weight Sum II (Java) Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. Testing more than one condition If you need to test for more than one condition, then take one of several actions, depending on the result of the tests, you can nest multiple IF statements together in one formula. K = {k l, , kt} is the set of all index. If the nested integer is a list, we calculate the sum of this list recursively using the same process but with depth d + 1. Given a nested list of integers represented as a string, implement a parser to deserialize it. TL;DR Code Solution * // Return true if this NestedInteger holds a single integer, rather than a nested list. Stack is a LIFO ( Last In First Out) data structure. A stack time window (see TIMEWINDOW) must have been defined before this command is executed. Each element is either an integer, or a list -- whose elements may also be integers or other lists. For example:. Question Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. id from the initial select. postgis, README. 793-811 2002 38 Acta Inf. (four 1's at depth 2, one 2 at depth 1) Example 2: Given the list [1,[4,[6]]], return 27. , the leaf level integers have weight 1, and the root level integers have the largest weight. For more information on pinning a view to fill its superview, see Attributes and Adaptive Single View. Example 1: Given the list [[1,1],2,[1,1]], return 10. Designing faster algorithms. Java allows us to define and use other classes within class implementations in this natural way. LeetCode - Nested List Weight Sum II (Java) Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. The AVERAGE and SUM functions are nested within the IF function. Python implementation. Nested Stack Views. List comprehension is generally more compact and faster than normal functions and loops for creating list. Given a nested list of integers, return the sum of all integers in the list weighted by their depth. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Subroutines In a given program, it is often needed to perform a particular sub-task many times on different data values. The outer sum has 10 summands. But they consider only one sub-list at a time.